Doug Briggs Author of Built for Strength
Built for Strength by Doug Briggs

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Chapter 1 - The Principles of Weight Training

Here is a preview of "Built for Strength: A Basic Approach To Weight Training Success for Men and Women" by Doug Briggs.  

Doug Briggs, Ph.D., is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS,*D, RSCC,*D)  with the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) and a NSCA Fly Solo Mentor.  A leading expert in his field. Doug has a long history of personal weight training, strength and conditioning coaching and competing internationally.

Definition

Weight training is the use of progressive resistance for the purpose of increasing muscular strength, muscular size, or muscular endurance. This is accomplished by utilizing dumbbells, kettlebells, barbells, and weight machines that are either selectorized (machines that have a weight stack with a pin adjustment) or that are weight plate loaded. Weight training can also be accomplished by the use of resistance exercises involving body weight through the use of exercise bands, Pilates, incline plane resistance (Total Gym®, Gravity®, Power Tower™), medicine ball, fitness straps TRX® Suspension Trainers®), and so forth.

Weight training may be used to accomplish the goals of strength, size, or endurance, either individually or in any combination. However when one area increases, often times so do the others. An example is if you train for size, your strength and endurance may also increase.

Terminology

WORKING OUT - What you will be doing as a non-competitive or recreational athlete.  Most Americans are "weekend warriors" or recreational athletes.

TRAINING - What a competitive athlete does. Training involves preparation for a sporting event where very specific programs are used, usually involving a concept known as periodization (see Chapter 9). Types of Weight Training

Types of Weight Training - Competitive

OL YMPIC-STYLE WEIGHTLIFTING - The oldest competitive weightlifting sport. This sport features two lifts called the two-hand snatch and the two-hand Clean & Jerk. This sport is also known simply as "weightlifting." The contestants are the most powerful of the weight training sports. Mathematically this would be expressed as Power = Force x Distance/Time or P = F X D/T, where Power is equal to the distance the weight is moved divided by the time it takes to complete the movement. See Chapter 8 for more on Olympic weightlifting.  

BODYBUILDING - A sport of illusion and muscle. The competitive part of bodybuilding is often referred to as a "male or female beauty pageant with muscles." In this sport, contestants compare musculature, definition, and pose to music. Bodybuilders seek extreme musculature and train for hypertrophy. A panel of judges then subjectively rates the contestants. In the 1930s & 1940s, the physique contests took place after the Olympic-style weightlifting meets and the weightlifters posed for the best physique. Of the three weight-training sports, this requires the most discipline in terms of training and diet.  

POWERLIFTING - A sport with its beginnings around 1962. Three lifts are contested: the squat, the bench press, and the dead lift. The contestants are the strongest of the three-weight training sports with bench presses in excess of 1000 Ibs and squats breaking the 1200 Ibs barrier. The term "powerlifting" is a misnomer. The sport is actually based on maximum strength or absolute strength. Strength is equal to the maximal force that a muscle or muscle group can generate.

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Types of Weight Training - Other


RECREATIONAL - This term typifies most Americans who lift weights. They do it for recreation and social reasons, but derive the benefits of health from it. Sometimes referred to as "weekend warriors," the recreational athlete is the one who keeps the gyms of America in business. Recreational athletes also help keep the doctors and rehabilitation people in business as many times they are not conditioned properly and tend to overdo exercises resulting in injury.  

REHABILITATION - The use of progressive resistance training in strengthening and reconditioning those who have been physically injured due to accident, improper training methods, or overtraining. The rehabilitation is normally done in conjunction with a physical therapist or athletic trainer that has advanced training in specific areas such sports rehabilitation, cardiac rehabilitation, neural rehabilitation, etc.  Rehab may incorporate body weight exercises utilizing exercise tubes and bands, incline plane resistance, fitness straps and other creative uses of equipment to meet the protocols of rehabilitation.  

ATHLETES - Those who use weight training both at the amateur and professional levels as a  tool for in-season and off-season conditioning for speed, strength, size, endurance, and injury prevention.  

FITNESS CONTESTANTS - Persons who use weight training to seek such titles as Ms. Fitness USA. These contests stress coordination, strength, and athletic ability. Many routines are choreographed to music and feature evening gowns as well as swimsuits. The judging is similar to that of a bodybuilding contest.

What to Wear and Take to the Gym

When preparing to lift weights, it is important to be comfortable. Do not wear tight-fitting clothes that cause binding or discomfort. Cotton and many newer fabrics, like spandex microfiber, remove perspiration and will keep you cool and dry. Not only is this clothing  functional, it is also attractive. It is a good idea to never workout in jeans or other bulky items that look like street clothes. Not only are they uncomfortable, but they could be dangerous as well. This means that you should wear and use the following:  

LOOSE FITTING CLOTHES - Tank tops and T-shirts in the summer, T-shirts and sweatshirts in the winter, and shorts or sweatpants as desired.  

ATHLETIC SHOES - Tennis, workout, cross trainers, weightlifting shoes, etc. are good in the gym. The shoes should provide good support, with a wide and stable base. The shoes should be firm and not spongy. Never wear anything that has exposed toes like sandals or Birkenstocks!  A weight plate, even a light one, falling from the end of a bar could  chop a toe off or cause significant damage if it falls on your foot.  

GLOVES - A good idea if you don't like the idea of calluses. While this is a personal preference item, and not required, they do sometimes give a better grip. This is especially true on bars or equipment that might be smooth.  

WEIGHTLIFTING BELT - Another personal preference item that is not required. weightlifting belts are generally overused and can lead to a weakening of the back and and abdominal muscles. It should be recommended that they only be used when approaching or exceeding the 90% of maximum lift capability in the squat and dead lift in the Olympic lifts.  

WEIGHTLIFTING WRIST STRAPS - Once again, a personal preference item. The straps are good for griping the bars and dumbbells when they are smooth or for use in handling more weight when the handgrip strength is beginning to weaken from continuous sets or too much weight.  

WRIST WRAPS - Primarily used to support the wrist. If you don't have weak or injured wrists, don't use them.  

KNEE WRAPS - Used for knee stability. There are many kinds of knee wraps from simple slip- on ACE® bandage types to very thick powerlifting types. These types of wraps are generally used by the competitive powerlifter, but are not necessary for the recreational lifter.  Continued usage over an extended period of time can lead to knee problems.  

TOWELS - A necessity. No one likes to work out or train in another person's sweat. not only is it a matter of hygiene, it is just plain rude not to use one. Always wipe up your sweat when you get off of any piece of equipment.  

WATER BOTTLES - Great for water or other beverages while working out. Keep the bottles tightly capped when not in use and check with the gym to insure that it is all right to have them on the exercise floor. Many gyms will not allow beverages other than water, because some beverages leave sticky spots and permanently dye the carpeting in a gym because of the coloring used in the beverage.  

 SPORTS BRAS - A very good idea for women, as they will help to support the breast while doing physical activities such as weight training and aerobics, making the activities more enjoyable and comfortable.

Equipment

There are various items of equipment, which are standard to any gym. These include, but are not limited to, bars of varying lengths and weight, weight-plates, dumbbells, handles, straps, and other pieces of miscellaneous equipment.  

WEIGHTLIFTING BARS - Two varieties. Standard bars usually weigh approximately 15 Ibs, are six feet in length and have a one inch diameter shaft. These bars are most often for home use but can be found in gyms where there are sets of fixed barbells and EZ curl bars.  

OL YMPIC-STYLE BARS - Any of the following and usually have a two inch diameter shaft. Shaft lengths may vary.

  • 7 -foot Bar - Commonly referred to as an "Olympic Bar." This bar generally weighs 45 Ibs without the collars. The name comes from the use in Olympic-style weightlifting beginning around 1896.
  • 6-foot Bar - This bar generally weighs about 35 Ibs.
  • 5-foot Bar - This bar generally weighs about 25 Ibs.

EZ CURL BARS - The bars are short and have the "zigzag" pattern to the handle. There are other similar bars and most of them are used for curling or triceps work.   PLATES -  There are two varieties. One has a one inch diameter hole in the center and is generally used in homes or on fixed barbells or EZ Curl bars. The other has a two inch diameter hole in the center, which is the commercial standard. Plates range in from 2 1/2 Ibs to 100 Ibs for commercial gym use. These plates are called "Olympic plates," however this is incorrect. True "Olympic plates" are made of different materials that encase a metal inner core. These plates allow for the dropping of the weights without damaging the floor or surrounding area and are quite expensive if you have to buy them.

DUMBBELLS - Various weights with some as low as one pound and as high as 200 Ibs. Some dumbbells do not include the weight of the handle in the weight stamped on the dumbbells.

KETTLEBELLS - Typically a cast iron weight that looks like a cannonball with a handle ed. The kettlebell can be used more easily in explosive, dynamic lifting, like a one-arm snatch. HANDLES - Manufactured to allow for different width of grips, hand positions, and variety in order to hit a muscle in different ways. The handles usually go on various pieces of selectorized equipment like the lat machines, cable crossovers, and rowing machines.

ANKLE STRAPS - Used primarily for selectorized machines and cable crossover machines to attach the ankles to the cable for doing adduction, abduction, flexion, and extension exercises. COLLARS - For holding the weight-plates on the bars. There are many varieties of collars, however the most popular are known as "spring lock" collars.

Safety

The following are some of the basic safety guidelines when weightlifting:

  1. Always use collars on the bars to keep the weights from sliding off and injuring you or someone else. Weight-plates falling off of bars are dangerous!
  2. Always use a spotter when lifting weights that are heavier than you normally use or when "maxing out." It is a good idea to use a spotter anytime you go over 80% of your one repetition maximum.
  3. Never wear sandals or go barefooted in the gym. The toes you save may be your own.
  4. Do not unload weightlifting bars by removing all the weights on one side. The plates may fall off the other side and injure someone. Unload the bar in an even fashion.

Why People do Things Wrong in the Gym

  1. "This is the way I have always done it."
  2. "This is how 1 was taught."
  3.  "I saw somebody in the gym doing it this way and they were in really good shape and had a good body, so I decided to do it myself."

Don't be a part of the "monkey see, monkey do" crowd. Educate yourself.

Eating Before Working Out

Always eat something light that digests easily about 30 minutes to one hour before working out. A whey protein shake with complex carbohydrates is great!  If you have no fuel for your body to run on, you will run out of energy early in your workout. Imagine this: you Starting Position on a trip in your car with an empty tank of gas. Not too far down the road, you run out of gas. This is what happens to the body when you have nothing to fuel it during a workout. Not eating can lead to a blood-sugar imbalance and cause light-headedness and, in extreme cases, fainting. When eating before a workout, do not eat a heavy meal or anything that can cause gas or bloating. Many foods while enjoyable, make a terrible pre-workout meal. Something easy to digest is ideal.

Water

There can't be enough said about water. Water makes up approximately 70 % of your body weight. Therefore, it is extremely important to replenish it continuously. The water in your body controls your body temperature, aids in the production of energy, lubricates joints, transports nutrients, and removes toxins. Water helps detoxify the body;  when you don't drink enough water, your body will actually retain water. If you wait until are thirsty, you have waited too long. By the time your body tells you that you are thirsty, you are already deficient in water. Drink plenty of water before, during and after working out. Generally, at least one half to one gallon a day spread throughout the day  

Coffee, tea, soda, etc., don't count as a water replacement and can actually have a diuretic effect causing the body to lose water. The very first thing you should do when. waking in the morning is drink eight to sixteen ounces of water to replenish what you lost due to bodily functions during the night. Typically, the time you spend sleeping will be the longest period of the day that your body will not intake any fluids and can be the time you are most dehydrated.  

Your urine is a good indicator of hydration. If your urine is clear or only slightly yellow you are  probably hydrated. It should appear like this four to six times a day. If your urine is dark yellow and gives off an odor, then you are probably dehydrated and need to concentrate on rehydrating. Some B & C vitamins can cause the urine to be very bright.

Warming Up

One of the most important aspects of lifting weights or exercising in general is warming-up.  The warm-up reduces your chances of injury by increasing your heart rate and blood flow. This increase in heart rate and blood flow raises muscle and body temperatures as well as aids your body in lubricating the joints. A thorough warm-up should last approximately five to ten minutes and can be done utilizing a bike, treadmill, stepper, or any other piece of cardio-vascular equipment. You may prefer to run in place, jump rope, or just walk briskly between classes and before working out. There is any number of ways to warm-up and it is generally a good idea to incorporate variety in warming-up. This will prevent boredom or stagnation. Be sure to always warm-up before stretching. Stretching with cold muscles is a good way to injure yourself. If you only have time for one-or-the-other, warming-up is the choice.

To Stretch or Not to Stretch, That is the Question!

As an athlete I have never stretched and I have never been injured. Something about stretching and then lifting weights just never made any sense to me. Why would I want my muscles to be relaxed when I am about to lift weights? Wouldn't I want them to be tighter? In an article by Dr. Bob O'Connor the whole idea of stretching is considered.  Some of the findings indicate that stretching may actually cause injury and reduce muscular power. Consider this:

  1. Muscles function poorly after stretching due to a reduction in the stiffness  required for maximal force production.

  2. Muscular power is reduced anywhere from 2 - 8%.

  3. Among athletes who stretch, muscle and connective tissue injuries are higher.

  4. Damage can be produced at the cellular level by stretching.

  5. Stretching can mask muscular pain.

  6. Stretching will not decrease the incidence of delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) either before or after the pain of weight training has set in.

The bottom line is this: Do not stretch before weight training, but instead increase the amount of time you would normally spend warming up. If you want to stretch, do it after your workout when the connective tissue is warmer and you should still be able to increase your flexibility.

Breathing While Lifting Weights

Breathing is very important when lifting weights. If you hold your breath while lifting weights you will become dizzy and quite possibly pass-out. The best way to breathe is to inhale during least strenuous part of each repetition and exhale on the most strenuous part of each repetition. An example: if you were bench pressing, you would inhale as the bar lowers to your chest (least strenuous) and exhale as you press the bar back to the starting position (most strenuous). Cycle your breathing so that you inhale on the downward phase of the lift and you exhale on the upward phase of the lift. Never hold your breath!

Valsalva Phenomenon

Holding your breath can initiate what is known as the Valsalva Phenomenon, named after the seventeenth-century anatomist. As you lift the weight, the pressure in intrathoracic cavity is increased which causes a rise in the blood pressure and thus prevents the return of venous blood to the heart. When the blood doesn't return to the heart, there is a sudden drop in blood pressure and the person may feel dizzy or faint.

Cooling Down

Once you have completed your workout, it is time to cool down. This will help return your body to its pre-exercise state. Cool-downs should last approximately five to ten minutes at a low intensity level. You could again use the cardiovascular equipment or just slowly lessen the intensity of whatever exercise you are doing.

Eating After Working Out

Be sure to always eat a small meal or have a protein drink immediately after working out. This nutrition will replenish what you have taken from your body during the training session and Starting Position the recovery process. It is a good idea to eat something containing whey protein and complex carbohydrates immediately after working out. About 30 minutes after working out consume a different type of protein like milk & egg, soy, or other to aid in the muscle building and repair process. A protein drink containing whey with milk and egg protein would be ideal. For many athletes there is nothing simpler and better than 16 ounces of chocolate milk after a training session. It is inexpensive and covers all the bases. The carbohydrates will help to replenish the body's carbohydrate stores and the protein will help with muscle tissue growth and repair.

Etiquette for the Weight Room

After 13 years of owning a gym, these are my recommendations for making weight training an enjoyable experience for all concerned:

  1. Do not drop weights or bang weight-plates or dumbbells together.
  2. Put dumbbells and weight-plates back in their proper place.
  3. Do not leave weight-plates on the bars.
  4. Wipe up any sweat that you may leave on benches, machines, or equipment.
  5. Spot for other lifters if they need the help; don't wait to be asked.
  6. Do not sit on equipment for long periods of time; let others work-in.
  7. Stay home if you are sick; no one wants your illness and you will recover faster.
  8. Do not make loud and obnoxious noises when lifting (i.e., grunting, screaming, farting, etc.)
  9. Do not use profanity, tell dirty jokes, or make rude comments about gym members, male or female.
  10. The gym is not a bar or nightclub. Do not go on the prowl for your weekend date here.
  11. Do not chew gum in the gym and definitely do not stick it on equipment. 
  12. Use chalk sparingly and clean up any that is left after use.
  13. Take a shower, brush your teeth and wear clean gym clothes for every workout.
  14. Ladies, the gym is not a fashion show, so go easy on the make-up.
  15. Always notice those around you and be careful around them.
  16.  Do not tie up the gym phone and, for goodness sake, do not talk on a cell phone.
  17. Pay your membership on time.

Myths

Following are some of the myths associated with exercise, weightlifting and weight training and the realities:

  1. "No Pain, No Gain." This is probably one of the dumbest myths around. Muscle soreness is normal; "pain" is not.
  2. Muscle boundness. There is no such thing. The lack of flexibility usually results from improper training technique.
  3. Women will get "big" like the men. Women do not produce enough testosterone to get "big."
  4.  "I only need to do aerobics, yoga, spinning, Pilates, etc." Aerobics and all the forms of exercise are highly overrated by themselves. You need to do a combination of activities to be in peak physical condition.
  5. "More is better." Train smart, not long.
  6. "I can eat any and everything I want if I workout." You can't, but nice try.
  7. Muscle turns to fat. Muscle cannot turn to fat and fat cannot turn into muscle.
  8. "I don't have the time to work out." Simple enough ... make the time.
  9. Slim down, then tone-up. Lifting weights while slimming down will help you accomplish this faster.
  10.  "I get enough protein daily." You probably don't. The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) is designed for sedentary Americans.
  11. Doing cardio is better for losing weight. It isn't. The more muscle you build, the more calories you burn.
  12. Performance enhancing steroids are legal. Steroids are not legal unless you have a valid prescription from a physician. Simple possession of steroids without a prescription is a Class 4 Felony. Steroid use is just plain dumb.
  13. "I want to lose weight only on my thighs." There is no such thing as "spot reducing."

Muscle Dysmorphia

This is a newly identified psychiatric disorder that is characterized by a practitioner's preoccupation with being lean and muscular. This disorder was discovered and identified by Dr. Harrison G. Pope, Jr., a psychiatrist at McClean Hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts, and his graduate student Roberto Olivardia of Brown University School of Medicine in Providence, Rhode Island.2  The researchers believe that this disorder comes from the same genetic predisposition that can cause other forms of obsessive behavior. The disorder can be a dangerous obsession where the participants workout five to six hours a day. They risk losing their jobs, loved ones, abuse steroids, but they still don't feel big enough compared to how large they think they should be. Rarely is this life threatening and it is possibly treatable with drugs like Prozac®.

How to Buy a Gym Membership

How to buy a gym membership is included in this chapter because many students will choose to workout at a health club that is off-campus. When working out at a facility off campus, it is best to know what to expect in terms of price and product. After owning a gym for 13 years, this is what I recommend:

  1. Workout at the gym during the time you normally workout and observe whether or not the gym is crowded. Is it stuffy? Is there enough equipment to work out with all the other people working out? Is it pleasant and fun? Is it noisy, smelly, or messy?
  2. Can the gym provide you with a printed price list? Many gyms will base your membership price on how you look, how you dress, how you act, etc. This is especially true of initiation fees. If the gym cannot give you a printed price list, chances are the prices are variable based on the above mentioned items.
  3. Does the gym charge an initiation fee? If they do, ask them to waive it. If they are unwilling to waive it, find another gym. At many gyms the salespeople work for whatever initiation fees they can collect. At other gyms a good-looking woman might pay no initiation fee and a man may pay a considerable amount for the  initiation fee. Sometimes, it will be impossible to get out of paying an initiation fee; especially at clubs that feature tennis courts, racquetball, basketball, running tracks, massage therapy, haircuts, etc.
  4. Does the club have a contract?  Contracts should be an option, not a requirement.  The average person joining a gym quits working out within two to three months of joining, but the contract continues for a year or more and some renew automatically for life or until you provide the gym with written notice cancelling the contract.  Is there a cancellation period in which you can change your mind?  Many states give you five working days to change your mind with no penalty. Check with the attorney general of your state if you have a problem or contact the Better Business Bureau (BBB) and file a complaint. Ask them to allow you to take a contract home and read it. If they won't, find another gym.  You may have no choice but to sign a contract.
  5. Read the fine print. Many contracts renew automatically for life unless the member cancels them. Usually, the contract is for one year at which time you must cancel it or it automatically renews. Most of the time, gyms require 30 days written notice to cancel a contract at the conclusion of one year. Add it up. This ends up being 13 months ... not 12!   If you fail to make your payments on time or you quit paying, this will appear on your credit report! Of course, you will get the annoying calls from bill collectors too.
  6. Does the gym require an Electronic Funds Transfers (EFT)? EFTs allows the gym to get into your bank account directly and deduct funds from it. Some gyms will tap into your account more than once a month until caught or take out an extra payment right before they close down. Do not allow an EFT to be taken out your account. Another option is to set-up an account strictly for the gym to deduct from, keeping a minimal amount in that account.
  7. Watch out for gimmicks. There is no such thing as a "Win a Free Week Contest" "Free Membership." They use the free come-ons to build mailing lists and referrals.  If you go in for your "free membership," be prepared for the "hard sell".  You'll be lucky to get out without a membership you didn't want.
  8. Does the gym rely on volume? Gyms using the "volume principal" will offer extremely low membership prices to get you to join and they will pay a lot of attention to you until you join. After you join they hope you go away because if everyone shows up to work out, there will be no equipment to work out on.
  9.  Is the gym clean? The gym should be clean and the equipment well maintained There shouldn't be any holes in the equipment upholstery, carpeting or broken mirrors on the walls. If there is, find another gym.
  10. Is the staff friendly, but not pushy? Are the staff members salespeople? Be ready for the "hard sell" if the staff members are salespeople. They make their living on commission. If they have you in an office before you even see the workout areas, run for your life and find a different gym!
  11. Are their personal trainers and aerobics staffs certified? Many gyms will tell you they are when in fact they are not. Ask for the certifying agency and call the agency to find out if they are certified. Many times you will find out that the staff is not certified. Do not use any personal trainers or take classes from any instructor that is not certified. The best gyms use staffs certified by the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), The Cooper Institute, and the National Council on Strength and Fitness (NSCF).
  12. Does the staff know, and are they certified in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), Automated External Defibrillation (AED) and First Aid? Your life may depend on it.
  13. Visit all the gyms in your area before making a decision. Ask for a free workout.  Check with the Better Business Bureau (BBB) and/or the State Attorney General to see if any complaints or lawsuits have been filed against the gym. Report any gym that uses deceptive marketing tactics, "double dips" into your bank account, or tries to scam you.
  14. Once you make the decision on which gym to join, enjoy it and use it to the fullest!

Medical Clearance

Before starting any exercise program, check with your physician to insure that you are physically able to begin a workout routine. Always discuss any concerns or problems you have with the physician. This is no time to hold back any information that could negatively impact you when you start your exercise program. If you have any restrictions, be sure to inform the class instructor or club owner and have the restrictions in writing.

The First Workout

Don't be intimidated. Everyone in the gym started out in the exactly the same way.   Take it easy, get acquainted with the gym and the people, and enjoy yourself. Ask questions of others. Chances are they will be glad to help. Do not do too much too soon.  One or two sets when using machines or free weights will give you the feeling of working out, but will not make you so sore that you can't move. This will prevent you from hating the gym and the experience. Use proper technique when lifting weights and see results faster than when you use improper technique. You will also have less risk of injury.

Doug's Words of Wisdom on Training with Weights

As you begin your journey into the world of weight training, I would like to bestow on you wisdom that only a lifetime of experience can bring: "The exercises you don't like to do will invariably be the ones that you need to do!" If you don't believe me. think about all the guys you know who wear baggy pants to the gym to cover-up scrawny legs. Do you ever see them doing squats? If you do, it is more like "curtsy" than a squat which is appropriate since most guys who squat like this are sissies anyway. How about the guys, by the pool or on the beach, with the huge upper bodies and the little weebly- wobbly legs that don't look like they can support the massive weight of the upper body? Instead of having a pleasing, balanced, and symmetrical body, they have shapes like light bulbs or keyholes! Balance your workouts so that you have exercises that work all parts of the body and you will not only have a a body that is pleasant to the eye, but a body that will be functional in the everyday demands of life and living, not to mention how good you will look in your clothes! This is the truth, as Doug knows it!

Built for Strength: A Basic Approach to Weight Training Success for Men and Women © 2009 by Doug Briggs. All Rights Reserved 

EndNotes

1 O'Connor, R. "Stretching the Truth, It is No Bargain!" Coach & Athletic Director, January 2003: 46 - 47.

2 Bigler, B. "Barbell Blues." The Sciences, January - February 1998: 10.

3 Delavier, F. "Strength Training Anatomy." Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, Inc., 2005.

4 Signorile, J.F., AJ. Zink, and S.P. Szwed. "A comparative electromyographical investigation of muscle utilization patterns using hand positions during
   the lat pull-down." Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2002: 539 - 546.

5 Andrews, G. "Angles, Positions and Variations. A thorough study of strength training." Personal Fitness Professional, September 2002: 30 - 38.

6 Palmittier, R.A, A Kani - nan, S.G. Scott, and E.Y.S. Chao. "Kinetic chain exercise in knee rehabilitation." Sports Medicine, 1991: 402 - 413.

7 "A Position Statement and Literature Review of the Squat Exercise in Athletic Conditioning." Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1992.

8 Anders, M. "New Study Puts the Crunch on Ineffective Ab Exercises." ACE Fitnessmatters, May - June 2001: 9 - 11.

9 Origin of Weightlifting. http://www.iwf.neUiwf/weightlifting_sport/history.php (accessed September 18, 2008).

10 Selye, H. Stress Without Distress. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1974.
11 Selye, H. The Stress of Life. New York: McGraw - Hill, 1956.

12 "Practical Considerations for Coaches - A Consensus Panel Statement." American College of Sports Medicine. February 2, 2006.
http://www.acsm.or9/AMIT.emp.IB.te.c.~rn?Sect.\a..i.=SeCi\~CI.I&(~P\·ate=I.CM/t1TMLIJISp(ay . cfm&Contentl D= 19 89 (accessed September
     19, 2008).

13 Ajan, T., and L. Baroga. Weight/ifting Fitness for all Sports. Budapest: Medicina Publishing House, 1988.

14 "Lecture." Houston, Texas: Exercise ETC., Inc., February 23,2003.

15 "Lecture." Based on research by Wayne Wescott, 1996. Houston, Texas: Exercise ETC., Inc., February 23,2003.

16 Bryner, et al. "Effects of resistance vs. aerobic training combined with an 800 ca body mass and resting metabolic rate." Journal of American
    College of Nutritio

17 Burger, M., and T. Burger. "Neuromuscular and hormonal adaptations to resistance training: Implication for strength development in female
    athletes." National Strength and Conditioning Journal 24, no. 3 (2002) 51 - 59.

18. Delavier, F. "Strength Training Anatomy." Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, Inc., 2005.


19 "Physical Growth." The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library. November 2005. http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec19/ch269/ch269b.html?qt=February 2003 body faat&alt=sh#sec19 - ch269 - ch269b - 306 (accessed September 19, 2008).

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